While the classical approach is similar to gareth morgan's machine metaphor which connotes efficiency, in the context of mintzberg's schools of thought it is synonymous with designing, planning and positioning schools of thought which is line with frederick taylor's scientific school (mintzberg, 1998) evolutionary approach to strategy the evolutionary is an emergent approach to strategy formulation, it relies on the ability of the market to secure a unitary goal of profit maximization. Theory, schools and practice 1 schools of thought in strategic management: fragmentation, a school of thought is understood to be the range of thought of a specific group contribution was labelled as the classical perspective (rouleau and séquin, 1995 whittington, 1993) in contrast to many previous classification attempts, the. The school of thought who is better is systemic school of thought because of lots of reason systemic school of thought have systemic school of thought used by honda consumer attitudes and behavior are confined to social systems with given norms, values, roles, culture, and ethics.
Whittington's evolutional and systemic schools of thoughts applying the two schools of thought in developing strategy to honda motors evolutionary process in which the evolutional is way in which the evolutionary perspective: sell or die. The classical approach is, however, the basis for much strategy discussion and analysis, and, as we will see later, underpins much strategic hrm thinking, particularly the ‘best-fit’ school of thought and the notion of vertical integration. Classical processual evolutionary systemic the design school the cognitive school the environmental the cognitive school school the entrepreneurial school the learning school the environmental school the positioning school table:2) the classification of the ten schools of mintzberg under whittington’s strategic perspectives 40 conclusion the.
Strategy, long discussed for many centuries from the ancient greek to sun-tsu over machiavelli and von clausewitz there is still no clear universal understanding of what strategy is this paper will critically assess richard whittington’s ‘four generic approaches’ on strategy.
In contrast to whittington’s four approaches, mintzberg (1990) elaborated and categorized strategy into ten schools of thought the schools are categorized in either prescriptive and practitioner-focused or descriptive and research-focused prescriptive school tends to deal with strategy process by analysis. Classical approach the classical approach is the most prominent of the four approaches to strategy it is a rational and deliberate approach to strategy formulation with a unitary objective of profit maximization (whittington, 2001. Whilst planning are made through market changes adaptability in classical school, strategies must be updated daily to survive in unpredictable market in evolutionary school different from the two approaches, whittington, 2000 mentioned: “ processualist emphasis the sticky imperfect nature of all human life, pragmatically accommodating strategy to the fallible processes of both organizations and markets. Recognising that certain ‘strategy schools’ suit different situations and environments better than others it however appears that the systemic approach on strategy is indeed the most persuasive in today’s world of global business finding the ‘school’ that best suits an organisation’s goals earns the greatest reward for all. School nature of process example entrepreneurial visionary edison cognitive mental process post-it learning emergent virgin power negotiation sky cultural collective process volvo environmental reactive process kyoto configuration transformational post office the seven descriptivedescriptiveschools.
The planning school: according to mintzberg, lampel and ahlstrand (1998,p47) the planning school of thought recommends analysis of the current business situation and focuses more on implementation of the strategies. The evolution of strategy research, a diversity of partly competitive and partly schools of thought signifies an enrichment of the research within the field of study (cf mahoney, 1993), other scholars from related disciplines complain strategic analysis’ (see chapter 2, this volume) 2 rethinking strategy. Whittington's classical and evolutionary schools of thought sam hwambo ba hons bus stud (open), member the classical approach empasizes profitability as the supreme goal of business and rational planning as the means to achieve it the evolutionary perspective is less confident about management's ability to plan and act rationally rather than relying on mangers, it expects markets to secure profit maximization.
Whittington (2001) categorized strategy in four basic generic approaches: classical, evolutionary, processual and systematic which have different perspectives about strategy in classical approach, the strategy is a rational process of deliberate calculation and analysis designed to maximize long term advantage. Different schools of thought on strategy lampel and ahlstrand (1998,p47) the planning school of thought recommends analysis of the current business situation and focuses more on implementation of the strategies evolutionary and systemic: classical: according to whittington (2001) these strategies are formulated very formally with the.
The classical and evolutionary approaches share a similarity as they both agree on the unitary goal of profit maximization as the outcome of strategy, however the evolutionary takes a different position as it relies on the ability of the market to secure profit maximization (whittington 2001.